Child and Adolescent Development

PSY 223 Scenarios and Data SetsScenario 1 (Child and Adolescent Development)*The question was investigated of whether (a) age at which infants start to crawl is related to (b) seasonaltemperature six months after birth. “Six months after birth” was targeted as the period in which babiestypically first try crawling. For a large sample of babies, (a) time at which crawling actually began and (b)average monthly temperature six months after the birth month were collected. The data are shownbelow (also found in the Data Set Scenario 1 Excel file).Month Average Age Starting to Crawl(weeks)Average Temperature 6 MonthsAfter Birth Month (in unitsFahrenheit)January 29.84 66February 30.52 73March 29.70 72April 31.84 63May 28.58 52June 31.44 39July 33.64 33August 32.82 30September 33.83 33October 33.35 37November 33.38 48December 32.32 57

Adapted from this study: Benson, J. B. (1993). Season of birth and onset of locomotion: Theoreticaland methodological implications. Infant Behavior and Development, 16, 69–81.Scenario 2 (Forensic Psychology)Levels of groups’ certainties about their eyewitness testimony to a simulated crime were compared. Thefirst group was set up to be “right” in its eyewitness accounts and the second group was set up to be“wrong”; the desire was to see if confidence differed across groups. Thirty-four participants wererecruited from a college campus and randomly divided into two groups, both of which were shown avideo of a crime scenario (length: 58 seconds) in which the perpetrator’s facial characteristics (withrespect to the camera) were clearly visible at two separate points and sporadically visible at others. Halfthe participants then were shown a five-individual lineup that contained the perpetrator in the video(“Group A”), and half the participants were shown a five-individual lineup that did not contain theperpetrator (“Group B”). Participants were asked to (a) identify if and where the perpetrator was in thelineup and (b) provide a rating of confidence on a scale from 1 to 10 (10 being highly confident) that theselection was the same as the person seen in the video committing the crime. All participants signedconsent forms, were told they could leave the study at any time, and were told they would be debriefed.Data on the confidence ratings are shown below (also found in the Data Set Scenario 2 Excel file).Group A Confidence Group B Confidence07 1010 0509 0510 1008 0705 0610 1010 0901 0310 0605 0406 1007 1006 1004 0305 0710 08Scenario 3 (Mental Health)The efficacy of two kinds of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in relation to a clinical population werecompared. The therapies differed on the dimension of how wedded they were to the rational-emotivebehavioral therapy (REBT), a subtype of CBT that emphasizes a directive, confrontational approach toencourage a patient to recognize the irrationality of specific thought patterns. Forty adolescents at aninpatient clinic for treatment of self-destructive behaviors were randomly divided into two groups ofequal size, one of which received the less challenging type of CBT (Treatment A) and one of whichreceived the more challenging kind of CBT (Treatment B). All patients were treated by trained therapistsin one-on-one sessions for 1.5 hours per day (broken down into 45-minute sessions) for six weeks. Allparticipants were apprised that they were part of a study, all participants signed consent forms, and allwere told they would be informed of the results at its conclusion; participants exhibiting any behaviorsthat required critical intervention were promptly treated outside the plan of the study. Outcome dataon the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC)-PAR Edition* collected at the conclusion of six weeksas shown below (also found in the Data Set Scenario 3 Excel file).Treatment A Treatment B74 8050 8270 4960 4430 6037 6534 7740 4539 5170 7019 5343 1625 3815 4420 2955 5148 5442 4660 1827 61Instrument has been validated for use with the population under consideration.Scenario 4 (Addictions)The efficacy of a new addiction medication was evaluated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, doubleblind study. The medication in question, Antaquil, is intended to moderate the symptoms of alcoholwithdrawal and craving with minimum side effects. Over the course of three weeks, a sample of 36individuals who were recovering from alcohol addiction were randomly assigned to two groups: oneadministered the medication and one administered a placebo. At the end of the designated period,participants were administered the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), an instrument thatprovides a global measure of thoughts about alcohol during nondrinking periods. Scores can range from0 to 40 with higher scores signaling higher levels of rumination about alcohol. Prior to participationparticipants were all informed of the nature of Antaquil and were told they could leave the study at anytime. Outcome data on the OCDS are shown below (also found in the Data Set Scenario 4 Excel file).Treatment Gp Placebo Gp40 3735 3527 3418 2430 2928 1411 2323 2530 3213 3716 3017 3026 2922 2219 2317 3129 2810 20Scenario 5 (Social Psychology)The question of whether Friday the 13th is an unusually unlucky day or whether this idea is justsuperstition was evaluated. Researchers in the United Kingdom examined the relation between (a)numbers of traffic accidents on past Friday the 13ths versus (b) numbers of accidents occurring onFriday the 6ths (all between July 1990 and November 1992).* The data shown below were collected(also found in the Data Set Scenario 5 Excel file).Friday the 6th Friday the 13th139,246 138,548134,012 132,908137,055 136,018133,732 131,843123,552 121,641121,139 118,723128,293 125,532124,631 120,249124,609 122,770117,584 117,263Adapted from this study: Scanlon, T. J., Luben, R. N., Scanlon, F. L., & Singleton, N. (1993). Is Friday the13th bad for your health? BritishMedical Journal, 307, 1584–1586.Scenario 6 (Applied Psychology)*The question was investigated of whether pleasant aromas help a student learn better. All 21participants learned both under a condition of smelling nothing and under a condition of smelling afloral scent. Counterbalancing was followed so that some participants learned without the scent firstand some learned with the scent first. All participants were apprised that the scents were “safe” andthat if they wished they could leave the study at any time. Data in terms of “time (in seconds) tocomplete a pencil and paper maze” are shown below (also found in the Data Set Scenario 6 Excel file).Unscented-Trial Scented-Trial38.4 53.146.2 54.772.5 74.238.0 49.682.8 53.633.9 51.350.4 44.135.0 34.032.8 34.560.1 59.175.1 67.357.6 75.555.5 41.149.5 52.240.9 28.344.3 74.993.8 77.547.9 50.975.2 70.146.2 60.356.3 59.9Adapted from a study by Hirsch & Johnston at the Smell & Taste Treatment and Research Foundation:The Data and Story Library. (1996). Retrieved from http: //lib.

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