Computer program language

Computer program language

. When the order of operations is not dictated by parenthe- ses, the operator of higher precedence executes before an operator of lower precedence. When operators have equal precedence, binary operators execute in left-to-right order, and unary oper- ators execute in right-to-left order.

Highest Precedence The unary operators +, -, ++, –, !, ~ The unary operators new and (type) The binary operators *, /, % The binary operators +, – The binary (shift) operators <<, >>, >>> The binary operators <, >, <=, >= The binary operators ==, != The binary operator & The binary operator ^ The binary operator | The binary operator && The binary operator || The ternary (conditional) operator ? : Assignment operators =, *=, /=, %=, +=, -=, <<=, >>=, >>>=, &=, ^=, |= Lowest Precedence

Primitive Data Types

Type Size Values

Integer

byte 1 byte -128 to 127

short 2 bytes -32,768 to 32,767

int 4 bytes -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647

long 8 bytes -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807

Real

float 4 bytes -3.402824 x 1038 to 3.402824 x 1038

double 8 bytes -1.79769313486232 x 10308 to 1.79769313486232 x 10308

Character (Unicode)

char 2 bytes All Unicode values between 0 and 65,535

Boolean

boolean 1 bit true, false

Unicode Character Codes The printable characters shown are a subset of the Unicode character set known as the ASCII character set. The numbering is the same whether the characters are considered to be members of the Unicode character set or members of the ASCII character set. (Character number 32 is the blank.)

32 56 8 80 P 104 h

33 ! 57 9 81 Q 105 i

34 ” 58 : 82 R 106 j

35 # 59 ; 83 S 107 k

36 $ 60 < 84 T 108 l

37 % 61 = 85 U 109 m

38 & 62 > 86 V 110 n

39 ‘ 63 ? 87 W 111 o

40 ( 64 @ 88 X 112 p

41 ) 65 A 89 Y 113 q

42 * 66 B 90 Z 114 r

43 + 67 C 91 [ 115 s

44 , 68 D 92 116 t

45 – 69 E 93 ] 117 u

46 . 70 F 94 ^ 118 v

47 / 71 G 95 _ 119 w

48 0 72 H 96 ‘ 120 x

49 1 73 I 97 a 121 y

50 2 74 J 98 b 122 z

51 3 75 K 99 c 123 {

52 4 76 L 100 d 124 |

53 5 77 M 101 e 125 }

54 6 78 N 102 f 126 ~

55 7 79 O 103 g

Data Structures and Abstractions with Java

Third Edition

Frank M. Carrano University of Rhode Island

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Carrano, Frank M. Data structures and abstractions with Java / Frank M. Carrano. — 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-610091-1 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-13-610091-0 (alk. paper) 1. Data structures (Computer science) 2. Java (Computer program language) I. Title. QA76.9.D33C37 2012 005.13’3–dc23 2011029581

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