# Draw the following latitudes as accurately as possible andJab~l them:

Draw the following latitudes as accurately as possible andJab~l them:

Extend the suns rays so that they are touching the earth’s surface. 2. Label the rays with the appropriate term: VR (for vertical ray), OR (for

oblique ray), or TR (for tangent ray) 3. Put an ‘X’ on the subsolar point 4. Draw the following latitudes as accurately as possible andJab~l them:

a) Equator – -~– — – —-· –

b) Tropic of Cancer c) Tropic of Capricorn d) Arctic and Antarctic Circle

Draw the circle of illumination and lightly shade the portion of earth that is experiencing night

s u n

R a y s —

June solstice December solstice

— s u n

R a y

— •

March equinox September equinox

Figure 5.1 Earth-Sun relationships

What is_the latitude (in degrees) of the subsolar point for each season? a) June Solstice. _ b) Dec. Solstice _ _ c) March Equinox. d) Sept Equinox _ _

“‘ c: E 0 …. ~ Q) al c.. 0 UJ UJ ::::: c: al – :=

Nvtl’?tl.~e_ ·. 7 Using the data in figure 5.3~plot and the insolation data for each month for

the following locations on the graph provided: Label each line on the graph with their corresponding letter below (a,b,c,d, ore). a) North Pole (already started for you) b) New York (already started for you) c) Equator d) Tropic of Capricorn e) South Pole

~ . Why does the North Pole exceed the amount of insolation received by the equator during the June Solstice? _

I

600 .–:–,—,—.-,–.-l.–,—-,—,.-r—-r:l-r-i—-i-r—r-,–:-Tl-r—r–r—i-r-T1:l600 l I ; l

5ool_l–L–l—1—–+-~~:1—J.:-1–t-,-+–+~1+-c–+-+–f-1-+14:+–+–+—t-t-r1n: 500 I I I l ! _l I

I I I l I I I

~ I / I ~: I I I

1~ –r1 1 I,’ 1 200 L_J__j_,. …….. 4 ·—-+–W~~”–if–f–H-, ~+-+-+-+-+1’t—t—t—t-llt1: 250 v : ~ I L 1 I I I : l t I fI j I ‘- I l ll_ 1 I I Ir I I

: p : I -+ !7 ! : :

ol…LJ-1-1-1.J1’1-L…J-1__.l_~·~~:’·L_LJ-1_:_l.-:-1-~.;.L.L~:–“-:~-‘-;:;~O Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

k ~v

~

~

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In addition, the greater length of travel through the atmosphere at higher latitudes reduces solar iritensity due to increased reflection, absorption, and scattering within the atmosphere. This energy receipt also varies daily, sea- sonally, and annually as Sun angle and daylength vary-less toward the equator, more toward the poles.

A useful altitude at which to characterize insolation is the top of the atmosphere (480 km, 300 mi). The graph in Figure 5 .3 plots the daily variation in insolation for selected latitudes. Latitudes are marked along iheleft side in 10° intervals. The months of the year are marked and labeled across the top and bottom. The dashed curved.Tine shows the declination of the Sun (the latitude of the sub solar point) throughout the year. · ·

To read the graph, select a latitude line and follow it from left to right through the months of the year. The Cwly insolation totals are read from the curved lines, given in watts per square meter per day (W/m2 per day). For ei<:am- ple, at the top of the atmosphere above 30° N latitude the insolation values (in W/m2 per day) are as follows (re~d­ ings are approximate-extrapolate when necessary): 240 on January 1; 250 on January 15, and 325-en_Eebruary I.

Figure 5.3
The post Draw the following latitudes as accurately as possible andJab~l them: