Economic and Technological

Economic and Technological

Indentured Servitude 55 Birth and Death 58 Medicine in the Colonies 58 Women and Families in the Colonies 59 The Beginnings of Slavery in English

America 60 Changing Sources of European

Immigration 65

THE COLONIAL ECONOMIES 65 The Southern Economy 65 Northern Economic and Technological

Life 66 The Extent and Limits of Technology 67 The Rise of Colonial Commerce 68 The Rise of Consumerism 69

PATTERNS OF SOCIETY 70 Masters and Slaves on the Plantation 70 The Puritan Community 72 Cities 73 Inequality 75

AWAKENINGS AND  ENLIGHTENMENTS 76

The Pattern of Religions 76 The Great Awakening 77 The Enlightenment 77 Literacy and Technology 78 Education 79 The Spread of Science 80 Concepts of Law and Politics 80

Consider the Source: Gottlieb  Mittelberger, the Passage of  Indentured Servants (1750) 56 Debating the Past: The Origins of  Slavery 62 Debating the Past: The Witchcraft  Trials 74 CONCLUSION 81 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 82 RECALL AND REFLECT 82

LOOSENING TIES 83 A Decentralized Empire 84 The Colonies Divided 84

THE STRUGGLE FOR THE  CONTINENT 85

New France and the Iroquois Nation 85 Anglo-French Conflicts 86 The Great War for the Empire 86

THE NEW IMPERIALISM 90 Burdens of Empire 90 The British and the Tribes 92 Battles over Trade and Taxes 92

STIRRINGS OF REVOLT 93 The Stamp Act Crisis 93 Internal Rebellions 96 The Townshend Program 96 The Boston Massacre 97 The Philosophy of Revolt 98 Sites of Resistance 101 The Tea Excitement 101

COOPERATION AND WAR 102 New Sources of Authority 102 Lexington and Concord 103

America in the World: The First  Global War 88 Consider the Source: Benjamin  Franklin, Testimony against the Stamp  Act (1766) 94 Patterns of Popular Culture: Taverns in  Revolutionary Massachusetts 100

CONCLUSION 104 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 105 RECALL AND REFLECT 105

3 SOCIETY AND CULTURE IN PROVINCIAL AMERICA 54

4 THE EMPIRE IN TRANSITION 83

CONTENTS  • xi 

THE STATES UNITED 107 Defining American War Aims 107 The Declaration of Independence 110 Mobilizing for War 110

THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 111 The First Phase: New England 111 The Second Phase: The Mid-Atlantic

Region 112 Securing Aid from Abroad 114 The Final Phase: The South 115 Winning the Peace 119

WAR AND SOCIETY 119 Loyalists and Minorities 119 The War and Slavery 120 Native Americans and the Revolution 121 Women’s Rights and Roles 121 The War Economy 124

THE CREATION OF STATE  GOVERNMENTS 124

The Assumptions of Republicanism 124 The First State Constitutions 124 Revising State Governments 125 Toleration and Slavery 126

THE SEARCH FOR A NATIONAL  GOVERNMENT 126

The Confederation 126

Diplomatic Failures 127 The Confederation and the Northwest 127 Indians and the Western Lands 129 Debts, Taxes, and Daniel Shays 129

Debating the Past: The American  Revolution 108 America in the World: The Age of  Revolutions 116 Consider the Source: The  Correspondence of Abigail Adams on  Women’s Rights (1776) 122 CONCLUSION 131 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 131 RECALL AND REFLECT 132

FRAMING A NEW GOVERNMENT 134 Advocates of Reform 134 A Divided Convention 135 Compromise 136 The Constitution of 1787 136

ADOPTION AND ADAPTATION 140 Federalists and Antifederalists 140 Completing the Structure 141

FEDERALISTS AND REPUBLICANS 142 Hamilton and the Federalists 142 Enacting the Federalist Program 143 The Republican Opposition 144

ESTABLISHING NATIONAL  SOVEREIGNTY 145

Securing the West 145 Maintaining Neutrality 148

THE DOWNFALL OF THE  FEDERALISTS 149

The Election of 1796 149 The Quasi War with France 149

Repression and Protest 150 The “Revolution” of 1800 151

Debating the Past: The Meaning  of the Constitution 138 Consider the Source: Washington’s  Farewell Address, American Daily Advertiser, September 19, 1796 146 CONCLUSION 152 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 152 RECALL AND REFLECT 153

5 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 106

6 THE CONSTITUTION AND THE NEW REPUBLIC 133

THE RISE OF CULTURAL  NATIONALISM 155

Educational and Literary Nationalism 155 Medicine and Science 156 Cultural Aspirations of the New Nation 157 Religion and Revivalism 157

STIRRINGS OF INDUSTRIALISM 159 Technology in America 161 Transportation Innovations 162 Country and City 163

JEFFERSON THE PRESIDENT 165 The Federal City and the “People’s

President” 165 Dollars and Ships 167 Conflict with the Courts 167

DOUBLING THE NATIONAL  DOMAIN 168

Jefferson and Napoleon 168 The Louisiana Purchase 170 Exploring the West 170 The Burr Conspiracy 171

EXPANSION AND WAR 174 Conflict on the Seas 175 Impressment 175 “Peaceable Coercion” 176 The “Indian Problem” and the British 177 Tecumseh and the Prophet 178 Florida and War Fever 179

THE WAR OF 1812 179 Battles with the Tribes 179 Battles with the British 181 The Revolt of New England 181 The Peace Settlement 182

America In The World: The Global  Industrial Revolution 160

Patterns of Popular Culture: Horse  Racing 164 Consider the Source: Thomas Jefferson  to Meriwether Lewis, June 20, 1803 172 CONCLUSION 182 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 183 RECALL AND REFLECT 183

STABILIZING ECONOMIC  GROWTH 185

The Government and Economic Growth 185

Transportation 186

EXPANDING WESTWARD 187 The Great Migration 187 White Settlers in the Old Northwest 187 The Plantation System in the Old

Southwest 188 Trade and Trapping in the Far West 188 Eastern Images of the West 189

THE “ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS” 189 The End of the First Party System 190 John Quincy Adams and Florida 191 The Panic of 1819 191

SECTIONALISM AND  NATIONALISM 192

The Missouri Compromise 192 Marshall and the Court 193

The Court and the Tribes 196 The Latin American Revolution and

the Monroe Doctrine 196

THE REVIVAL OF OPPOSITION 198 The “Corrupt Bargain” 198 The Second President Adams 199 Jackson Triumphant 199

Consider the Source: Thomas Jefferson  Reacts to the Missouri Compromise,  1820 194 CONCLUSION 200 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 200 RECALL AND REFLECT 200

7 THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA 154

8 VARIETIES OF AMERICAN NATIONALISM 184

xii •  CONTENTS

THE RISE OF MASS POLITICS 202 The Expanding Democracy 202 Tocqueville and Democracy in America 204 The Legitimization of Party 204 President of the Common People 205

“OUR FEDERAL UNION” 209 Calhoun and Nullification 209 The Rise of Van Buren 209 The Webster-Hayne Debate 210 The Nullification Crisis 210

THE REMOVAL OF THE INDIANS 211 White Attitudes toward the Tribes 211 The “Five Civilized Tribes” 211 Trail of Tears 212 The Meaning of Removal 214

JACKSON AND THE BANK WAR 214 Biddle’s Institution 214 The “Monster” Destroyed 215 The Taney Court 215

THE CHANGING FACE OF  AMERICAN POLITICS 216

Democrats and Whigs 216

POLITICS AFTER JACKSON 218 Van Buren and the Panic of 1837 218

The Log Cabin Campaign 219 The Frustration of the Whigs 222 Whig Diplomacy 223

Consider the Source: Alexis de  Tocqueville, Concerning the People’s Choices and the Instinctive Preferences of American Democracy 206 Debating the Past: Jacksonian  Democracy 208 Patterns of Popular Culture:  The Penny Press 220 CONCLUSION 224 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 224 RECALL AND REFLECT 224

THE CHANGING AMERICAN  POPULATION 226

Population Trends 226 Immigration and Urban Growth,

1840–1860 227 The Rise of Nativism 227

TRANSPORTATION AND  COMMUNICATIONS  REVOLUTIONS 228

The Canal Age 229 The Early Railroads 230 The Triumph of the Rails 231 The Telegraph 232 New Technology and Journalism 234

COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY 234 The Expansion of Business, 1820–1840 234 The Emergence of the Factory 235 Advances in Technology 235 Rise of the Industrial Ruling Class 236

MEN AND WOMEN AT WORK 236 Recruiting a Native Workforce 236 The Immigrant Workforce 237

The Factory System and the Artisan Tradition 239

Fighting for Control 240

PATTERNS OF SOCIETY 240 The Rich and the Poor 240 Social and Geographical Mobility 242 Middle-Class Life 242 The Changing Family 243 The “Cult of Domesticity” 244 Leisure Activities 245

THE AGRICULTURAL NORTH 246 Northeastern Agriculture 246 The Old Northwest 247 Rural Life 249

Consider the Source: Handbook to Lowell, 1848 238 CONCLUSION 249 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 250 RECALL AND REFLECT 250

9 JACKSONIAN AMERICA 201

10 AMERICA’S ECONOMIC REVOLUTION 225

CONTENTS  • xiii 

THE COTTON ECONOMY 252 The Rise of King Cotton 252 Southern Trade and Industry 254 Sources of Southern Difference 255
Economic and Technological

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