Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design

Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Valacich, Joseph S.

Essentials of systems analysis and design / Joseph S. Valacich, Joey F. George, Jeffrey A. Hoffer.—5th ed.

p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-706711-4 ISBN-10: 0-13-706711-9

System design. 2. System analysis. I. George, Joey F. II. Hoffer, Jeffrey A. III. Title.

QA76.9.S88V345 2011 003—dc22


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-706711-9 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-706711-4

Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design FIFTH EDITION

Joseph S. Valacich University of Arizona

Joey F. George Iowa State University

Jeffrey A. Hoffer University of Dayton

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto

Delhi Mexico City Sa~o Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

To Jackie, Jordan, and James, for your sacrifices, encouragement,

and support.


To Karen, Evan, and Caitlin.


To Patty, for her sacrifices, encouragement, and support.

To my students, for being receptive and critical, and for challenging me

to be a better teacher.



1 The Systems Development Environment 2 2 The Sources of Software 26 3 Managing the Information Systems Project 42


4 Systems Planning and Selection 82


5 Determining System Requirements 122 6 Structuring System Requirements:

Process Modeling 152 7 Structuring System Requirements:

Conceptual Data Modeling 188


8 Designing the Human Interface 232 9 Designing Databases 272


10 Systems Implementation and Operation 318

Appendix A Object-Oriented Analysis and Design 361 Appendix B Agile Methodologies 381

References 395 Glossary of Acronyms 401 Glossary of Terms 403 Index 409


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Contents Preface xix


Chapter 1 The Systems Development Environment 2 What Is Information Systems Analysis and Design? 4

Systems Analysis and Design: Core Concepts 4

Systems 6

Definition of a System and Its Parts 6

Important System Concepts 7

A Modern Approach to Systems Analysis and Design 10

Your Role in Systems Development 11

Developing Information Systems and the Systems Development Life Cycle 12

Phase 1: Systems Planning and Selection 14

Phase 2: Systems Analysis 14

Phase 3: Systems Design 15

Phase 4: Systems Implementation and Operation 15

Alternative Approaches to Development 18

Prototyping 18

Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools 18

Joint Application Design 19

Rapid Application Development 19

Participatory Design 21

Agile Methodologies 21

Key Points Review 21 Key Terms Checkpoint 22 Review Questions 23 Problems and Exercises 23 Discussion Questions 24 Case Problems 24

Chapter 2 The Sources of Software 26 Introduction 27

Systems Acquisition 27

Outsourcing 28

Sources of Software 29

Choosing Off-the-Shelf Software 33


x Contents

Reuse 36

Key Points Review 39 Key Terms Checkpoint 39 Review Questions 40 Problems and Exercises 40 Field Exercises 40 Case: Petrie’s Electronics 40

Chapter 3 Managing the Information Systems Project 42 Pine Valley Furniture Company Background 44

Managing the Information Systems Project 45

Initiating the Project 49

Planning the Project 53

Executing the Project 60

Closing Down the Project 63

Representing and Scheduling Project Plans 64

Representing Project Plans 66

Calculating Expected Time Durations Using PERT 67

Constructing a Gantt Chart and Network Diagram at Pine Valley Furniture 68

Using Project Management Software 71

Establishing a Project Starting Date 72

Entering Tasks and Assigning Task Relationships 72

Selecting a Scheduling Method to Review Project Reports 73

Key Points Review 74 Key Terms Checkpoint 75 Review Questions 76 Problems and Exercises 76 Discussion Questions 78 Case Problems 79 Case: Petrie’s Electronics 80


Chapter 4 Systems Planning and Selection 82 Identifying and Selecting Projects 84

The Process of Identifying and Selecting Information Systems Development Projects 84

Deliverables and Outcomes 87

Initiating and Planning Systems Development Projects 88

The Process of Initiating and Planning Systems Development Projects 88

Deliverables and Outcomes 89

Assessing Project Feasibility 90

Assessing Economic Feasibility 92

Assessing Other Feasibility Concerns 98

Building the Baseline Project Plan 99

Reviewing the Baseline Project Plan 105

Pine Valley Furniture WebStore: Systems Planning and Selection 108

Internet Basics 108

Pine Valley Furniture WebStore 110

Key Points Review 113 Key Terms Checkpoint 114 Review Questions 116 Problems and Exercises 116 Discussion Questions 117 Case Problems 117 Case: Petrie’s Electronics 119


Chapter 5 Determining System Requirements 122 Performing Requirements Determination 124

The Process of Determining Requirements 124

Deliverables and Outcomes 125

Requirements Structuring 126

Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements 126

Interviewing and Listening 126

Directly Observing Users 131

Analyzing Procedures and Other Documents 132

Modern Methods for Determining System Requirements 135

Joint Application Design 136

Using Prototyping during Requirements Determination 139

Radical Methods for Determining System Requirements 140

Identifying Processes to Reengineer 141

Disruptive Technologies 142

Pine Valley Furniture WebStore: Determining System Requirements 143

System Layout and Navigation Characteristics 143

Contents xi

WebStore and Site Management System Capabilities 144

Customer and Inventory Information 145

System Prototype Evolution 145

Key Points Review 146 Key Terms Checkpoint 147 Review Questions 148 Problems and Exercises 148 Discussion Questions 148 Case Problems 149 Case: Petrie’s Electronics 150

Chapter 6 Structuring System Requirements: Process Modeling 152 Process Modeling 154

Modeling a System’s Process 154

Deliverables and Outcomes 154

Data-Flow Diagramming Mechanics 155

Definitions and Symbols 156

Developing DFDs: An Example 158

Data-Flow Diagramming Rules 161

Decomposition of DFDs 162

Balancing DFDs 164

Using Data-Flow Diagramming in the Analysis Process 166

Guidelines for Drawing DFDs 166

Using DFDs as Analysis Tools 168

Using DFDs in Business Process Reengineering 169
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