Human Relations; The Hawthorne Studies

• This video gives perspectives from the actualpeople involved.Questions• The first experiment showed no difference nomatter the condition (bright lights, same or dimlights). Why do you think that may be?• How important is it for you to be heard in yourown work or organizations? How does it changewhat you do when you are or are not heard?• How have the results from the HawthorneStudies changed the way things are done today?• Do you think what the company got out of thestudy was different from what they wereintending to find? Why?Hawthorne Studies• The Hawthorne effect, social factors, andmanagement style were often cited as thereason for increased productivity.• Later studies found there may have beenother answers (worker selection, incentives,etc.) that may have had a larger influence.• Even so, these studies were revolutionary inimproving working conditions and starting toview people as assets in a business.Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• Hierarchy of prepotency- the lower levelneeds must be met before one can move onto the higher level. (ex. Hard to feel creativewhen a person is tired.)• Employers had been providing water, breaksfor food, shelter, and meeting basic needs.The Hawthorne Studies revealed the desire forhigher level needs to be met.McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y• Douglas McGregor thought that somemanagers think workers need a strong handand guidance. The inherent characteristics arenot overly positive (Theory X manager).• Other managers believe workers haveinitiative and will be productive without a firmhand guiding (Theory Y manager).• McGregor thought more managers should belike the Theory Y managers.Theory Z• Globalization brings ideas from Japan• Moves away from thinking about managingindividuals. Management is about the team.• A number of scholars (see pg. 107) give someguidelines for mindset:– Strong culture– Long term over short term– Collective over individualTheory Z• Better understanding of overall workprocesses.• Collective autonomy• Ability to make decisions through consensus• Control own resources• Team over individual rewardsTheory Z- Managers• Facilitate• Mutual monitoring• Backup behavior• Pool resources, adapt duties• Team orientationConcertive Control• When control shifts away from managers, itbecomes part of group responsibility.• Begin to self-govern according to social normsand organization values.• Pressure from peers may be just asthreatening

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Human Relations; The Hawthorne Studies

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