Literature in the Antebellum

Literature in the Antebellum

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THE UNFINISHED NATION

A Concise History of the American People Eighth Edition

Alan Brinkley Columbia University

with Contributions from

John Giggie University of Alabama

Andrew Huebner University of Alabama

THE UNFINISHED NATION: A CONCISE HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, EIGHTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2014, 2010, and 2008. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 ISBN 978-0-07-351333-1 MHID 0-07-351333-4

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Brinkley, Alan. The unfinished nation: a concise history of the American people / Alan Brinkley, Columbia University; with contributions from John Giggie, University of Alabama; Andrew Huebner, University of Alabama. — Eighth edition. pages cm ISBN 978-0-07-351333-1 (alkaline paper) — ISBN 0-07-351333-4 (alkaline paper) 1. United States—History. I. Giggie, John Michael, 1965- II. Huebner, Andrew. III. Title. E178.1.B827 2016 973—dc23

2015025264

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites. mheducation.com/highered

• vii

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Alan Brinkley is the Allan Nevins Professor of History at Columbia University. He served as university provost at Columbia from 2003 to 2009. He is the author of Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and the Great Depression, which won the 1983 National Book Award; American History: Connecting with the Past; The End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War; Liberalism and Its Discontents; Franklin D.

Roosevelt; and The Publisher: Henry Luce and His American Century. He is board chair of the National Humanities Center, board chair of the Century Foundation, and a trustee of Oxford University Press. He is also a member of the Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1998–1999, he was the Harmsworth Professor of History at Oxford University, and in 2011–2012, the Pitt Professor at the University of Cambridge. He won the Joseph R. Levenson Memorial Teaching Award at Harvard and the Great Teacher Award at Columbia. He was educated at Princeton and Harvard.

John Giggie is associate professor of history and African American studies at the University of Alabama. He is the author of After Redemption: Jim Crow and the Transformation of African American Religion in the Delta, 1875–1917, editor of America Firsthand, and editor of Faith in the Market: Religion and the Rise of Commercial Culture. He is currently preparing a book on African American religion during the Civil War. He has been honored for his teaching, most recently with a Distinguished Fellow in Teaching award from the University of Alabama. He received his PhD from Princeton University.

Andrew Huebner is associate professor of history at the University of Alabama. He is the author of The Warrior Image: Soldiers in American Culture from the Second World War to the Vietnam Era and has written and spoken widely on the subject of war and society in the twentieth-century United States. He is currently working on a study of American fami- lies and public culture during the First World War. He received his PhD from Brown University.

BRIEF CONTENTS

viii  •

PREFACE XXV

1 THE COLLISION OF CULTURES 1

2 TRANSPLANTATIONS AND  BORDERLANDS 24

3 SOCIETY AND CULTURE IN  PROVINCIAL AMERICA 54

4 THE EMPIRE IN TRANSITION 83

5 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 106

6 THE CONSTITUTION AND THE NEW  REPUBLIC 133

7 THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA 154

8 VARIETIES OF AMERICAN  NATIONALISM 184

9 JACKSONIAN AMERICA 201

10 AMERICA’S ECONOMIC  REVOLUTION 225

11 COTTON, SLAVERY, AND THE OLD  SOUTH 251

12 ANTEBELLUM CULTURE AND  REFORM 272

13 THE IMPENDING CRISIS 296

14 THE CIVIL WAR 321

15 RECONSTRUCTION AND THE NEW  SOUTH 351

16 THE CONQUEST OF THE FAR  WEST 380

17 INDUSTRIAL SUPREMACY 404

18 THE AGE OF THE CITY 427

19 FROM CRISIS TO EMPIRE 454

20 THE PROGRESSIVES 487

21 AMERICA AND THE GREAT WAR 518

22 THE NEW ERA 543

23 THE GREAT DEPRESSION 563

24 THE NEW DEAL 587

25 THE GLOBAL CRISIS, 1921–1941 611

26 AMERICA IN A WORLD AT WAR 628

27 THE COLD WAR 653

28 THE AFFLUENT SOCIETY 678

29 THE TURBULENT SIXTIES 707

30 THE CRISIS OF AUTHORITY 736

31 FROM “THE AGE OF LIMITS” TO  THE AGE OF REAGAN 766

32 THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION 789 APPENDIX 823 GLOSSARY 851 INDEX 855

CONTENTS

AMERICA BEFORE COLUMBUS 2 The Peoples of the Precontact Americas 2 The Growth of Civilizations: The South 4 The Civilizations of the North 4

EUROPE LOOKS WESTWARD 6 Commerce and Sea Travel 6 Christopher Columbus 7 The Spanish Empire 9 Northern Outposts 12 Biological and Cultural Exchanges 12 Africa and America 13

THE ARRIVAL OF THE ENGLISH 18 Incentives for Colonization 18 The French and the Dutch in America 20 The First English Settlements 20

Consider the Source: Bartolomé de Las  Casas, “Of the Island of Hispaniola”  (1542) 10

Debating the Past: Why Do Historians  So Often Differ? 14 America in the World: The Atlantic  Context of Early American History 16 CONCLUSION 22 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 22 RECALL AND REFLECT 23

THE EARLY CHESAPEAKE 25 Colonists and Natives 25 Reorganization and Expansion 27 Maryland and the Calverts 29 Bacon’s Rebellion 30

THE GROWTH OF NEW ENGLAND 31 Plymouth Plantation 31 The Massachusetts Bay Experiment 32 The Expansion of New England 34 Settlers and Natives 37 King Philip’s War and the Technology of

Battle 38

THE RESTORATION COLONIES 39 The English Civil War 39 The Carolinas 40 New Netherland, New York, and New

Jersey 41 The Quaker Colonies 41

BORDERLANDS AND MIDDLE  GROUNDS 42

The Caribbean Islands 43 Masters and Slaves in the Caribbean 43 The Southwest Borderlands 44

The Southeast Borderlands 45 The Founding of Georgia 46 Middle Grounds 47

THE DEVELOPMENT OF EMPIRE 50 The Dominion of New England 50 The “Glorious Revolution” 51

Consider the Source: Cotton Mather  on the Recent History of New England  (1692) 36 Debating the Past: Native Americans  and the Middle Ground 48 CONCLUSION 52 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 52 RECALL AND REFLECT 53

1 THE COLLISION OF CULTURES 1

2 TRANSPLANTATIONS AND BORDERLANDS 24

• ix

PREFACE XXV

x •  CONTENTS

THE COLONIAL POPULATION 55 Indentured Servitude 55 Birth and Death 58 Medicine in the Colonies 58 Women and Families in the Colonies 59 The Beginnings of Slavery in English

America 60 Changing Sources of European

Immigration 65

THE COLONIAL ECONOMIES 65 The Southern Economy 65 Northern Economic and Technological

Life 66 The Extent and Limits of Technology 67 The Rise of Colonial Commerce 68 The Rise of Consumerism 69

PATTERNS OF SOCIETY 70 Masters and Slaves on the Plantation 70 The Puritan Community 72 Cities 73 Inequality 75

AWAKENINGS AND  ENLIGHTENMENTS 76

The Pattern of Religions 76 The Great Awakening 77 The Enlightenment 77 Literacy and Technology 78 Education 79 The Spread of Science 80 Concepts of Law and Politics 80

Consider the Source: Gottlieb  Mittelberger, the Passage of  Indentured Servants (1750) 56 Debating the Past: The Origins of  Slavery 62 Debating the Past: The Witchcraft  Trials 74 CONCLUSION 81 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 82 RECALL AND REFLECT 82

LOOSENING TIES 83 A Decentralized Empire 84 The Colonies Divided 84

THE STRUGGLE FOR THE  CONTINENT 85

New France and the Iroquois Nation 85 Anglo-French Conflicts 86 The Great War for the Empire 86

THE NEW IMPERIALISM 90 Burdens of Empire 90 The British and the Tribes 92 Battles over Trade and Taxes 92

STIRRINGS OF REVOLT 93 The Stamp Act Crisis 93 Internal Rebellions 96 The Townshend Program 96 The Boston Massacre 97 The Philosophy of Revolt 98 Sites of Resistance 101 The Tea Excitement 101

COOPERATION AND WAR 102 New Sources of Authority 102 Lexington and Concord 103

America in the World: The First  Global War 88 Consider the Source: Benjamin  Franklin, Testimony against the Stamp  Act (1766) 94 Patterns of Popular Culture: Taverns in  Revolutionary Massachusetts 100

CONCLUSION 104 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 105 RECALL AND REFLECT 105

3 SOCIETY AND CULTURE IN PROVINCIAL AMERICA 54

4 THE EMPIRE IN TRANSITION 83

CONTENTS  • xi 

THE STATES UNITED 107 Defining American War Aims 107 The Declaration of Independence 110 Mobilizing for War 110

THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 111 The First Phase: New England 111 The Second Phase: The Mid-Atlantic

Region 112 Securing Aid from Abroad 114 The Final Phase: The South 115 Winning the Peace 119

WAR AND SOCIETY 119 Loyalists and Minorities 119 The War and Slavery 120 Native Americans and the Revolution 121 Women’s Rights and Roles 121 The War Economy 124

THE CREATION OF STATE  GOVERNMENTS 124

The Assumptions of Republicanism 124 The First State Constitutions 124 Revising State Governments 125 Toleration and Slavery 126

THE SEARCH FOR A NATIONAL  GOVERNMENT 126

The Confederation 126

Diplomatic Failures 127 The Confederation and the Northwest 127 Indians and the Western Lands 129 Debts, Taxes, and Daniel Shays 129

Debating the Past: The American  Revolution 108 America in the World: The Age of  Revolutions 116 Consider the Source: The  Correspondence of Abigail Adams on  Women’s Rights (1776) 122 CONCLUSION 131 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 131 RECALL AND REFLECT 132

FRAMING A NEW GOVERNMENT 134 Advocates of Reform 134 A Divided Convention 135 Compromise 136 The Constitution of 1787 136

ADOPTION AND ADAPTATION 140 Federalists and Antifederalists 140 Completing the Structure 141

FEDERALISTS AND REPUBLICANS 142 Hamilton and the Federalists 142 Enacting the Federalist Program 143 The Republican Opposition 144

ESTABLISHING NATIONAL  SOVEREIGNTY 145

Securing the West 145 Maintaining Neutrality 148

THE DOWNFALL OF THE  FEDERALISTS 149

The Election of 1796 149 The Quasi War with France 149

Repression and Protest 150 The “Revolution” of 1800 151

Debating the Past: The Meaning  of the Constitution 138 Consider the Source: Washington’s  Farewell Address, American Daily Advertiser, September 19, 1796 146 CONCLUSION 152 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 152 RECALL AND REFLECT 153

5 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 106

6 THE CONSTITUTION AND THE NEW REPUBLIC 133

THE RISE OF CULTURAL  NATIONALISM 155

Educational and Literary Nationalism 155 Medicine and Science 156 Cultural Aspirations of the New Nation 157 Religion and Revivalism 157

STIRRINGS OF INDUSTRIALISM 159 Technology in America 161 Transportation Innovations 162 Country and City 163

JEFFERSON THE PRESIDENT 165 The Federal City and the “People’s

President” 165 Dollars and Ships 167 Conflict with the Courts 167

DOUBLING THE NATIONAL  DOMAIN 168

Jefferson and Napoleon 168 The Louisiana Purchase 170 Exploring the West 170 The Burr Conspiracy 171

EXPANSION AND WAR 174 Conflict on the Seas 175 Impressment 175 “Peaceable Coercion” 176 The “Indian Problem” and the British 177 Tecumseh and the Prophet 178 Florida and War Fever 179

THE WAR OF 1812 179 Battles with the Tribes 179 Battles with the British 181 The Revolt of New England 181 The Peace Settlement 182

America In The World: The Global  Industrial Revolution 160

Patterns of Popular Culture: Horse  Racing 164 Consider the Source: Thomas Jefferson  to Meriwether Lewis, June 20, 1803 172 CONCLUSION 182 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 183 RECALL AND REFLECT 183

STABILIZING ECONOMIC  GROWTH 185

The Government and Economic Growth 185

Transportation 186

EXPANDING WESTWARD 187 The Great Migration 187 White Settlers in the Old Northwest 187 The Plantation System in the Old

Southwest 188 Trade and Trapping in the Far West 188 Eastern Images of the West 189

THE “ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS” 189 The End of the First Party System 190 John Quincy Adams and Florida 191 The Panic of 1819 191

SECTIONALISM AND  NATIONALISM 192

The Missouri Compromise 192 Marshall and the Court 193

The Court and the Tribes 196 The Latin American Revolution and

the Monroe Doctrine 196

THE REVIVAL OF OPPOSITION 198 The “Corrupt Bargain” 198 The Second President Adams 199 Jackson Triumphant 199

Consider the Source: Thomas Jefferson  Reacts to the Missouri Compromise,  1820 194 CONCLUSION 200 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 200 RECALL AND REFLECT 200

7 THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA 154

8 VARIETIES OF AMERICAN NATIONALISM 184

xii •  CONTENTS

THE RISE OF MASS POLITICS 202 The Expanding Democracy 202 Tocqueville and Democracy in America 204 The Legitimization of Party 204 President of the Common People 205

“OUR FEDERAL UNION” 209 Calhoun and Nullification 209 The Rise of Van Buren 209 The Webster-Hayne Debate 210 The Nullification Crisis 210

THE REMOVAL OF THE INDIANS 211 White Attitudes toward the Tribes 211 The “Five Civilized Tribes” 211 Trail of Tears 212 The Meaning of Removal 214

JACKSON AND THE BANK WAR 214 Biddle’s Institution 214 The “Monster” Destroyed 215 The Taney Court 215

THE CHANGING FACE OF  AMERICAN POLITICS 216

Democrats and Whigs 216

POLITICS AFTER JACKSON 218 Van Buren and the Panic of 1837 218

The Log Cabin Campaign 219 The Frustration of the Whigs 222 Whig Diplomacy 223

Consider the Source: Alexis de  Tocqueville, Concerning the People’s Choices and the Instinctive Preferences of American Democracy 206 Debating the Past: Jacksonian  Democracy 208 Patterns of Popular Culture:  The Penny Press 220 CONCLUSION 224 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 224 RECALL AND REFLECT 224

THE CHANGING AMERICAN  POPULATION 226

Population Trends 226 Immigration and Urban Growth,

1840–1860 227 The Rise of Nativism 227

TRANSPORTATION AND  COMMUNICATIONS  REVOLUTIONS 228

The Canal Age 229 The Early Railroads 230 The Triumph of the Rails 231 The Telegraph 232 New Technology and Journalism 234

COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY 234 The Expansion of Business, 1820–1840 234 The Emergence of the Factory 235 Advances in Technology 235 Rise of the Industrial Ruling Class 236

MEN AND WOMEN AT WORK 236 Recruiting a Native Workforce 236 The Immigrant Workforce 237

The Factory System and the Artisan Tradition 239

Fighting for Control 240

PATTERNS OF SOCIETY 240 The Rich and the Poor 240 Social and Geographical Mobility 242 Middle-Class Life 242 The Changing Family 243 The “Cult of Domesticity” 244 Leisure Activities 245

THE AGRICULTURAL NORTH 246 Northeastern Agriculture 246 The Old Northwest 247 Rural Life 249

Consider the Source: Handbook to Lowell, 1848 238 CONCLUSION 249 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 250 RECALL AND REFLECT 250

9 JACKSONIAN AMERICA 201

10 AMERICA’S ECONOMIC REVOLUTION 225

CONTENTS  • xiii 

THE COTTON ECONOMY 252 The Rise of King Cotton 252 Southern Trade and Industry 254 Sources of Southern Difference 255

SOUTHERN WHITE SOCIETY 256 The Planter Class 257 The “Southern Lady” 257 The Plain Folk 259

SLAVERY: THE “PECULIAR INSTITUTION” 260

Varieties of Slavery 261 Life under Slavery 261 Slavery in the Cities 264 Free African Americans 265 The Slave Trade 265 Slave Resistance 267

THE CULTURE OF SLAVERY 268 Slave Religion 268 Language and Music 269 The Slave Family 269

Consider the Source: Senator James Henry Hammond Declares, “Cotton Is King,” 1858 258 Debating the Past: The Character of Slavery 262 CONCLUSION 270 KEY TERMS/PEOPLE/PLACES/EVENTS 270 RECALL AND REFLECT 271

THE ROMANTIC IMPULSE 273 Nationalism and Romanticism in American

Painting 273 An American Literature 274 Literature in the Antebellum

South 274 The Transcendentalists 275 The Defense of Nature 276 Visions of Utopia 277 Redefining Gender Roles 277 The Mormons 278

REMAKING SOCIETY 279 Revivalism, Morality, and Order 279 Health, Science, and Phrenology 280 Medical Science 281 Education 281 Rehabilitation 282 The Rise of Feminism 283 Struggles of Radical Black

Women 285
Literature in the Antebellum

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