multicultural society.

multicultural society.

A History of Multicultural America


Ronald Takaki

Copyright © 1993, 2008 by Ronald Takaki

All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may by reproduced, distributed, or

transmitted in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

First revised edition, December 2008 Originally published in hardcover by Little, Brown and Company, June 1993

This book is dedicated to

my wife,


for our forty-nine years of friendship,

our joyous journey through a lifetime of scholarship,

and our ceaseless collaboration

in recovering and writing American

history’s missing chapters.

Acclaim for Ronald Takaki’s


“In our increasingly diverse society, the issues of race, ethnicity, and religion are often at the forefront of American consciousness, and always in the backs of our minds, shaping our own identity and our views of others. They reverberate in our voting booths, town halls classrooms, and popular culture. In this timely update of A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, Professor Ronald Takaki examines the challenges we face in reconciling our differences and forming a secure, sustainable future for our country. Now more than ever, it’s essential that we understand and embrace our diversity if we are to grow together as a nation.”

—President Bill Clinton

“A valuable contribution to the discussion of America as a multicultural society.”

—Boston Globe

“Takaki’s book is nothing less than an attempt to a view all of American history from a multiculrual perspective. It is a laudable effort—humane, well informed, accessible, and often incisive. It is clearly not intended to divide American but rather to teach them to value the nations’ inescapable diversity.”

—New York Times Book Review
multicultural society.



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