Potential issues that may affect research.

IntroductionFor the Research Design Brief, you will select one phenomenon we explored in this module and describe(It is marked on page 6 of the document) how you would study it and the potential issues you might face if you were to conduct the study. This is an individual task and you should be able to complete it in less than 500 words.ObjectivesThis activity is designed to help you:● Deeply understand and explain a psychological concept from the course.● Experience the process of translating concepts into research studies.● Think through the research design process.● Find academic sources to support research.Grading CriteriaPlease look carefully at the rubric to see exactly how your work will be graded.● Title: Provides a clear and specific title that indicates the central research question.● Introduction: Introduces the study and describes the purpose and rationale.● Course Concept: Describes the course concept you are interested in exploring.● Research Question: States the main research question.● Literature Review: Reviews important past research.● Method: Describes the methods that will be used to conduct the study.● Potential Issues: Anticipates potential issues that may affect the research.Writing GuideThese are suggestions to help guide your writing.TitleThe title is a clear and specific statement about the central research question. Ideally, the title would be crafted using keywords from the literature so that future scholars can find your work when they are researching the topic area. For more information, review http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/title(链接到外部网站。)IntroductionThe introduction establishes the context and significance of your research. You state your purpose and rationale in this section. For more information, please review: https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/introduction(链接到外部网站。)Course ConceptPlease be sure to identify and explain your chosen course concept. This includes identifying significant individuals associated with the concept and also providing examples where appropriate.Research QuestionThis section is where you will state the main research question. The question does not need to be long or complicated, instead aim for clarity and viability. To find out more about research questions, please review http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/introduction/researchproblem(链接到外部网站。)Literature ReviewIn this section, you will review important past research and then use them as the foundation for your study. This is where you synthesize majors ideas or concepts that pertain to your study and discuss how they contribute to your study. For this assignment you will review at least one (1) academic sources (academic books and peer-reviewed journal articles), but you may use more if you wish. Please include a reference for the article(s) you use. More information is at http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/literaturereview(链接到外部网站。)(note that you can hover over the “5. The Literature Review” tab for more information on sources).MethodThis section is where you will detail what you will do in your study. For example, you will identify the your research method (quantitative/qualitative) and the procedures and instruments that you will use. You will also need to describe your research context, for example, where the research will be conducted or specifics about the participants. More information is at http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/methodology(链接到外部网站。).Potential IssuesAn important aspect of research is trying to figure out where problems may occur. In this section, you will think through your study and try to anticipate issues that may affect your results. Ideally, you would offer a solution that may then be incorporated into the study.Suggestions● Try to start thinking about your idea early● Make an outline and be sure to include all sections● If you need help with writing in general, please do not hesitate to contact the Howe Writing Center at http://miamioh.edu/hcwe/hwc/index.html● (链接到外部网站。)●Notes● If you prefer, you may use the section headings outlined in the grading criteria to organize your paper.● Please include references for the articles you use.● Please review the grading rubric and writing guide so that you understand the expectations for this paper.

TitleProvides a clear and specific title that indicates the central research question(s).5.0 得分Exceeds StandardsTitle very clearly reflects the central research idea. 4.0 得分Nearly Exceeds StandardsTitle clearly reflects the central research idea.5.0 分

IntroductionEstablishes the context and significance of your research. The purpose and rationale are stated.15.0 得分Exceeds StandardsExcellent introduction of the research idea, purpose, and rationale that grabs interest of reader.15.0 分此标准已链接至学习结果Connection to course contentIdentifies and explains the concept. Includes significant individuals and examples.15.0 得分Exceeds StandardsExcellent and accurate explanation of related course concepts, including important theorists. 12.0 得分Nearly Exceeds StandardsGood and accurate explanation of related course concepts, including important theorists.15.0 分

Research QuestionStates the main research question.5.0 得分Exceeds StandardsExcellent research question that is very clear, rooted in course concepts, and arguable.4.0 得分Nearly Exceeds StandardsStrong research question that is clear, rooted in course concepts, and arguable.3.0 得分Meets StandardsGood research question that is somewhat clear, rooted in course concepts, and somewhat arguable.5.0 分

Literature ReviewReviews important past research.15.0 得分Exceeds StandardsExceptionally critical, relevant, and consistent connections made between evidence and research idea.12.0 得分Nearly Exceeds StandardsConsistent connections made between evidence and research idea.15.0 分

SourcesAcademic sources used.15.0 得分Exceeds StandardsExcellent sources selected and they are cited and referenced correctly in APA format.12.0 得分Nearly Exceeds StandardsGood sources selected and they are cited and referenced correctly in APA format.10.0 得分Meets StandardsGood sources selected and they are cited and referenced mostly correctly in APA format.15.0 分MethodOutlines the research design and methodology. 15.0 得分Exceeds StandardsExcellent description that is clear, complete, logically sequenced, and plausible.

15.0 分

Potential IssuesAnticipates potential issues that may affect the research.15.0 得分Exceeds StandardsExceptional anticipation and description of potential issues that may affect the research.

15.0 分

Organization and Structural Development of the Idea15.0 得分Exceeds StandardsExceptionally clear, logical, mature, and thorough development of idea with excellent transitions between and within paragraphs.15.0 分

Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics15.0 得分Exceeds StandardsControl of grammar, usage, and mechanics. Almost entirely free of spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors.

For the Research Design Brief, you will select one phenomenon we explored in this module and describe how you would study it and the potential issues you might face if you were to conduct the study.Learning: FoundationsPurposeThis overview focuses on concepts that affect all topics in this module. Keep these overarching concepts in mind as you work through the different units in this module.Objectives● Define the term learning and describe how it changes depending on perspectives Identify the major theories of learningReadingsRequired (Seifert)● Chapter 2 – The learning process○ Introduction (pages 21 – 22) Teachers’ perspectives on learning (pages 22 – 24)○ Major theories and models of learning (introduction only page 24 and beginning 25)Supplemental (Woolfolk)● Chapter 2 – Cognitive development○ Role of learning and development (page 60)○ Implications of Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories for teachers (pages 60 – 61)MediaRequired● noneSupplemental● noneResearch● Find out more about the differences between Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s view on learning.Learning: Behavioral Views of LearningPurposeThis units focuses on the behavioral perspectives of how we learn.Objectives● Describe the behavioral view of learning● Distinguish between the different forms of reinforcement and punishment● Apply behavioral approaches to the classroom environment● Distinguish between Classical and Operant conditioningReadingsRequired (Seifert)● Chapter 2 – The learning process○ Behaviorism: changes in what students do (pages 25 – 29)○ Enjoy Life TutorialsSupplemental (Woolfolk)● Chapter 7 – Behavioral views of learning Early explanations of leaning (pages 248 – 250)○ Reinforcement schedules (pages 252 – 254)○ Applied behavior analysis (pages 256 – 262)MediaRequired● Video: Classical Conditioning○ A look at Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning.○ 播放媒体评论。○ this is a media comment● Video: Beyond Classical Conditioning○ A look at learning beyond the Classical Conditioning model.○ 播放媒体评论。○ this is a media comment● Video: Operant Conditioning○ A demonstration of Operant Conditioning, Skinner’s notion of a science of human behavior, and Skinner’s view of free will○ 播放媒体评论。○ this is a media commentSupplemental● Video: B. F. Skinner○ A look at the life and accomplishments of B. F. Skinner○ 播放媒体评论。○ this is a media comment● Video: Reinforcement○ A demonstration of reinforcement principles○ 播放媒体评论。○ this is a media comment● Video: Incentives○ Classroom footage of a teacher using various incentives to promote learning and good behavior in a first grade classroom○ 播放媒体评论。○ this is a media commentResearch● Find more about Classical Conditioning● Find more about Schedules of Reinforcement● Find more about the Premack Principle, Shaping, and Response CostLearning: Constructivist Views of LearningPurposeThis units focuses on how constructivist’s perspectives of how we learn.Objectives● Define constructivism● Differentiate between psychological constructivism and social constructivism● Describe Piaget’s view of how learning occurs● Describe Vygotsky’s view of how learning occurs● Explain some implications of constructivism for teachingReadingsRequired (Seifert)● Chapter 2 – The Learning process○ Constructivism: changes in how students think (pages 29 – 35)Supplemental (Woolfolk)● Chapter 10 – The learning sciences and constructivism○ Constructivist views of learning (pages 359 – 361 stop after Vygotsky)● Chapter 2 – Cognitive development○ Basic tendencies in thinking (pages 43 – 44)○ The social sources of individual thinking (pages 55 – 56)MediaRequired● noneSupplemental● Social constructivist practices (video)○ Classroom footage of a 4th-grade teacher using cooperative groups to teach a unit on Ancient Greece to her diverse (ethnically, SES, and ability) group of students.

○ 播放媒体评论。○ this is a media comment● Using scaffolding and group work to teach (video)○ Joanna, a High School English teacher, talks about scaffolding as a positive aspect of group work.

○ 播放媒体评论。○ this is a media commentResearch● Find more about the Piaget’s basic view on thinking● Find more about the Vygotsky’s basic view on thinkingLearning: Cognitive Views of LearningPurposeThis units focuses on some cognitive perspectives of how we learn.Objectives● Describe the cognitive view of learning● Describe knowledge in the cognitive perspective● Describe the information processing systemReadingsRequired (Seifert)● noneSupplemental (Woolfolk)● Chapter 8 – Cognitive views of learning Elements of the cognitive perspective (pages 282 – 303)● Becoming knowledgeable: Some basic principles (pages 307 – 309)MediaRequired● Cognitive View of Learning (video) (slides)● Information Processing (video)● 播放媒体评论。● (slides)● Actions●Supplemental● Information Processing (video)○ Classroom footage of a 4th-Grade teacher promoting students’ information processing during a math lesson.

○ 播放媒体评论。○ this is a media comment

ResearchFind more about the mnemonics, serial-position effect, distributed practice, and massed practiceLearning: Complex ThinkingPurposeThis units focuses on complex cognitive process.Objectives● Describe what is meant by the term “critical thinking”● Describe what is meant by the term “creative thinking”● Define “problem-solving” Identify factors that facilitate and impede problem-solving● Describe instructional strategies that stimulate complex thinking● Give examples of teacher-directed instructional strategies● Give examples of student-centered models of learning● Describe inquiry learning Describe cooperative learningReadingsRequired● (Seifert) Chapter 9 – Facilitating complex thinking○ Entire chapter (pages 177 – 197)Supplemental● (Woolfolk) Chapter 9 – Complex cognitive processes○ Some problems with heuristics (pages 336 – 337)MediaRequired● noneSupplemental● Video: Critical thinking, reasoning, and decision-making through roleplaying○ Classroom footage of a high school civics teacher using role-plays to promote students’ understanding of constitutional issues and the judicial system.

○ 播放媒体评论。○ this is a media comment● Video: Encouraging student inquiry○ De, a High School Mathematics teacher, discusses the challenge of getting students who are used to being assigned tasks to define their own projects.

○ 播放媒体评论。○ this is a media comment● Video: Critical thinking and problem-solving○ Two teachers, a 4th-Grade and a 5th-Grade teacher, talk about encouraging critical thinking and problem solving in their students○ 播放媒体评论。○ this is a media commentResearch● Find out more about Confirmation Bias and Belief PerseveranceLearning: Social Cognitive Views of LearningPurposeThis units focuses on the social cognitive perspectives of how we learn.Objectives● Describe the social cognitive view of learning● Distinguish between social cognitive theory and social learning theory● Describe the triarchic reciprocal causality system● Discuss the roles of observation and self-efficacy in the learning processReadingsRequired● (Seifert) Chapter 6 – Student motivation○ Motivation as self-efficacy (pages 116 – 121)Supplemental (Woolfolk)● Chapter 11 – Social cognitive views of learning and motivation○ Social cognitive theory (pages 398 – 400)○ Modeling: learning by observing others (pages 400 – 404)MediaRequired● Video: Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory○ An introduction to Bandura’s social cognitive theory.○ 播放媒体评论。○● Supplemental○ noneResearch● Find more about social learning theory● Find more about the triarchic reciprocal causality systemLearning: MotivationPurposeThis units focuses on the role of motivation in how we learn.Objectives● Describe the different types of motivation● Describe the role of motivation in learning● Describe self-determination theory● Describe the expectancy-value model of motivationReadingsRequired (Seifert)● Chapter 6 – Student motivation○ Motivation (pages 106 – 116, 121-129)Supplemental (Woolfolk)● Chapter 12 – Motivation in learning and teaching○ Learned helplessness (pages 445 – 446)Media● Required○ none● Supplemental○ noneResearch● Find out more about learned helplessness

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