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public culture

History builds critical thinking and writing skills through “Critical Missions” scenarios that place students in a pivotal moment in time and ask them to read and examine sources, maps, and timelines and develop a historical argument.

Better Geography Skills Embedded narrated map video learning resources in SmartBook support geographical as well as historical thinking.

Better Grades Connect History offers a number of powerful reports and charts to give you the information you need to easily evaluate performance and keep students on a path to success. Connect Insight—now available for both students and instructors—is a series of visual data displays that provide at-a-glance information regarding student performance. Either quick review or in-depth, these reports remove the guesswork so you can focus on what matters most.


A Concise History of the American People Eighth Edition

Alan Brinkley Columbia University

with Contributions from

John Giggie University of Alabama

Andrew Huebner University of Alabama

THE UNFINISHED NATION: A CONCISE HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, EIGHTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2014, 2010, and 2008. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 ISBN 978-0-07-351333-1 MHID 0-07-351333-4

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All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page. Credits: Frontmatter: Page ix (T): © Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid, Spain/Bridgeman Images; (B): © MPI/Getty Images; p. x: The Library of Congress; p. xi (T): © MPI/Hulton Archive/Getty Images; (B): Courtesy National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; p. xii: © Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, USA/Bridgeman Images; p. xiii: © Saint Louis Art Museum, Missouri, USA/Gift of Bank of America/Bridgeman Images; p. xiv (T): The Library of Congress; (B): © Bettmann/Corbis; p. xv: © Granger, NYC -All Rights Reserved.; p. xvi: The Library of Congress; p. xvii: © Photo Reproduction by Transcendental Graphics/Getty Images; p. xix: © United Artists/ Photofest; p. xx: © Granger, NYC -All Rights Reserved.; p. xxi (T): © Instituto Nazionale Luce/Alinari/Getty Images; (B): © Popperfoto/Getty Images; p. xxiv: © Ian Dagnall/Alamy. Design elements: Scales: © Comstock/ Jupiter Images; Phonograph: © Burke/Triolo/Brand X Pictures/Jupiter Images; Race car: © George Doyle/ Stockbyte/Getty Images (RF); Wooden top: © Image Club; Stack of books: © D. Hurst/Alamy; American flag: © Steve Cole/Getty Images (RF); Double hemisphere map: © Stockbyte/Getty Images (RF)

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Brinkley, Alan. The unfinished nation: a concise history of the American people / Alan Brinkley, Columbia University; with contributions from John Giggie, University of Alabama; Andrew Huebner, University of Alabama. — Eighth edition. pages cm ISBN 978-0-07-351333-1 (alkaline paper) — ISBN 0-07-351333-4 (alkaline paper) 1. United States—History. I. Giggie, John Michael, 1965- II. Huebner, Andrew. III. Title. E178.1.B827 2016 973—dc23


The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

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Alan Brinkley is the Allan Nevins Professor of History at Columbia University. He served as university provost at Columbia from 2003 to 2009. He is the author of Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and the Great Depression, which won the 1983 National Book Award; American History: Connecting with the Past; The End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War; Liberalism and Its Discontents; Franklin D.

Roosevelt; and The Publisher: Henry Luce and His American Century. He is board chair of the National Humanities Center, board chair of the Century Foundation, and a trustee of Oxford University Press. He is also a member of the Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1998–1999, he was the Harmsworth Professor of History at Oxford University, and in 2011–2012, the Pitt Professor at the University of Cambridge. He won the Joseph R. Levenson Memorial Teaching Award at Harvard and the Great Teacher Award at Columbia. He was educated at Princeton and Harvard.

John Giggie is associate professor of history and African American studies at the University of Alabama. He is the author of After Redemption: Jim Crow and the Transformation of African American Religion in the Delta, 1875–1917, editor of America Firsthand, and editor of Faith in the Market: Religion and the Rise of Commercial Culture. He is currently preparing a book on African American religion during the Civil War. He has been honored for his teaching, most recently with a Distinguished Fellow in Teaching award from the University of Alabama. He received his PhD from Princeton University.

Andrew Huebner is associate professor of history at the University of Alabama. He is the author of The Warrior Image: Soldiers in American Culture from the Second World War to the Vietnam Era and has written and spoken widely on the subject of war and society in the twentieth-century United States. He is currently working on a study of American fami- lies and public culture during the First World War. He received his PhD from Brown University.
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