what color would the the ocean appear when viewed from above?

what color would the the ocean appear when viewed from above?

Question 1 (1 point)

Question 2 (1 point)

Question 3 (1 point)

Question 4 (1 point)

Question 5 (1 point)

Note: It is recommended that you save your response as you complete each question.

The largest component by volume of dry air is oxygen.

true

false

Save

If water absorbed all light and did not scatter or reflect it, what color would the the ocean appear when viewed from above?

blue

black

white

red

yellow

Save

If a sound pulse is sent vertically downward into the sea and its reflected echo from the seafloor returns 6 seconds later, the depth of the water is _ meters.

9,000

12,000

3,000

6,600

4,500

Save

What property of water allows you to place a volume of water in a glass that is greater than the volume of the glass?

compressibility

surface tension

heat capacity

density

viscosity

Save

Imagine an experiment where we uniformly heat three containers, one with water, one with dry sand, one with damp sand. Which one would experience the greatest increase in temperature?

dry sand

it is impossible to tell with the information given

they would all heat up the same amount

damp sand

water

Save

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Question 6 (1 point)

Question 7 (1 point)

Question 8 (1 point)

Question 9 (1 point)

Question 10 (1 point)

How many calories are required to convert 2 grams of ice at 0 degrees C to water vapor at 100 degrees C?

670

1440

160

2768

1180

Save

Forchhammer’s principle states that the _ of dissolved salts per unit volume of ocean water is nearly constant, even though the ____ may change.

amount, proportion

density, salinity

proportion, amount

quantity, equilibrium

equilibrium, quantity

Save

Approximately what percentage of seawater is dissolved solids?

86

2.5

3.5

none of the above

35

Save

When warm, moist air passes over cold water or a cold earth surface, _ fog is formed, and heat is transferred from __. (Hint: don’t panic, combine what you learned about fog with latent heat.)

radiative; water vapor to the surrounding air

radiative; the surrounding air to water vapor

advective; water vapor to the surrounding air

advective; the surrounding air to water vapor

sea smoke; water vapor to the surrounding air

Save

Which of the following is NOT necessary for radiation fog to occur?

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Question 11 (1 point)

Question 12 (1 point)

Question 13 (1 point)

Question 14 (1 point)

Question 15 (1 point)

no sunshine

little or no cloud cover

light or no surface breeze

cold, wet ground

moisture at ground level

Save

If all the world’s sea ice melted, sea level would

rise

fall

remain the same

you can’t tell from the given information

it depends on the season

Save

If the world’s sea ice melted, sea level would rise.

true

false

Save

A local coastal wind controlled only by daily temperature variation between land and water will blow __ during the day.

45 degrees to the right

onshore

45 degrees to the left

offshore

parallel to the shore

Save

What physical property is the driving force of convection cell circulation?

density

energy

calories

heat

viscosity

Save

The amount of energy from the sun entering the earth’s atmosphere

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Question 16 (1 point)

Question 17 (1 point)

Question 18 (1 point)

Question 19 (1 point)

cannot be measured

is the same across the tropics

does not vary with latitude

is always highest at the equator on the equinoxes

is the same at the Earth’s surface as the top of the atmosphere

Save

Atlantic basin hurricanes move from east to west mainly because of

convection

Coriolis effect

the northeast trade winds

the westerly trade winds

Earth’s rotation

Save

The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the meeting place of what two wind belts?

southeast trades and northeast trades

doldrums and northeast trades

doldrums and southeast trades

polar easterilies and southwest trades

southwest trades and southeast trades

Save

The average location of the meteorological equator is

23.5 degrees south latitude

coincident with the geographic equator

5 degrees north latitude

23.5 degrees north latitude

5 degrees south latitude

Save

The location labeled “A” most likely experiences

winter dry monsoons

dry, rainshadow effects

orographic rainfall

summer wet monsoons

landbreezes

Save

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Question 20 (1 point)

Question 21 (1 point)

Question 22 (1 point)

Question 23 (1 point)

Question 24 (1 point)

Question 25 (1 point)

Daily summer solar radiation levels at polar latitudes are caused by the high intensity of radiation per unit surface area rather than by long periods of daylight.

true

false

Save

Why is more heat energy absorbed from the sun in the tropics than at the poles?

land masses are larger in the tropics

there is more water in the tropics

there is a higher angle of incidence of solar rays in the tropics

there is a lower angle of incidence of solar rays in the tropics

there is more cloud cover at the poles

Save

The tropics are warmer than the poles because there is more incoming solar radiation at low latitudes than at high latitudes.

true

false

Save

The weather systems across the United States move from west to east mainly because of

the northeast trade winds

Earth’s rotation

convection

Coriolis effect

the westerly trade winds

Save

A wind blowing from Miami to New York would be called a __ wind.

west

east

hurricane

north

south

Save

The accompanying diagram shows the conditions during what phenomenon and what season?

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Question 26 (1 point)

Question 27 (1 point)

Question 28 (1 point)

La Niña summer

Normal or neutral conditions

El Niño summer

El Niño winter

La Niña winter

Save

The cause of the decrease in primary productivity during El Niño is

Carbon dioxide levels too high

Major upwelling of nutrients

Decreased upwelling of nutrients

Increased oxygenation of surface water

Decreased downwelling of nutrients

Save

The accompanying diagram shows the conditions during what phenomenon and what season?

La Niña winter

La Niña summer

El Niño winter

El Niño summer

Normal or neutral conditions

Save

During La Niña, sea level in the western Pacific is __ than during El Niño.

higher

lower

variable

the same as

Save

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Question 29 (1 point)

Question 30 (1 point)

Question 31 (1 point)

Question 32 (1 point)

Question 33 (1 point)

The Southern Oscillation Index

is essentially a mirror image of sea surface temperature

shows the trend of atmospheric pressure differences between Tahiti and Darwin, Australia

shows the “SO” in “ENSO”

is one measure of the large-scale fluctuations in air pressure occurring between the western and eastern tropical Pacific

each of the choices is correct

Save

The atmospheric convection cell associated with the El Niño phenomenon is

Southern Oscillation

Walker Circulation

Doldrums

Jet Stream

Hadley Cell

Save

The feature labeled “F” is ____ during an El Niño.

an ocean current. It moves to the east

the thermocline. It occurs deeper in the eastern Pacific Ocean

convection. It forms further east

upwelling. It may get “shut off” by the layer of warm water above it

normal circulation. The surface winds (trade winds) may reverse

the warm pool. It starts to spread eastward when the trade winds slacken

Save

The “barometric effect” accounts for about _ increase in storm surge level for every 1 millibar drop in air pressure associated with a hurricane.

1 inch

1 foot

1 centimeter

1 meter

10 meters

Save

You are watching the evening news with your family and hear reports of a tropical cyclone hitting Australia. You can confidently tell your family that the winds in the storm are rotating __.

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Question 34 (1 point)

Question 35 (1 point)

to the left

to the right

clockwise

counterclockwise

forward

Save

Maximum wind speed in a hurricane occurs

at sea level

in the right, front quadrant

in the Caribbean

in the eye wall

in the eye

Save

The areas in red are common zones of hurricane formation. There no (or very few) hurricanes formed in the area labeled “A.” Why?

coriolis effect moves hurricanes away from “A”

downwelling makes the water warm

monsoons interfere with hurricane formation there

upwelling usually makes the surface water too cold for hurricanes to form

the trade winds knock the tops off hurricanes there

Save

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Question 36 (1 point)

Question 37 (1 point)

Question 38 (1 point)

Storm surges

result from the very high atmospheric pressures associated with hurricanes

only form at high tides

only form at low tides

occurs on the back side of hurricanes

may be amplified by concave shorelines and broad shallow continental shelves

Save

Storm surge is a theoretical still-water level. Storm waves are in addition to the storm surge.

true

false

Save

As the hurricane approaches land, which directions are the winds at City B?

alongshore

down

offshore

up

onshore

Save

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Question 39 (1 point)

Question 40 (1 point)

Question 41 (1 point)

Question 42 (1 point)

Of these properties, which is the most important in controlling the density of water?

none of these is more important than the others

heat capacity

temperature

salinity

pressure

Save

What drives the ocean conveyor system?

density

salinity

pressure

temperature

upwelling

Save

Which of the following processes can cause surface seawater to increase in density?

sea ice formation

sea ice melting

surface water evaporation

both sea ice formation and surface water evaporation

both sea ice melting and surface water evaporation

Save

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Question 43 (1 point)

Using the labeled latitudes A-E, where would you likely find higher than average sea surface salinity?

A only

C only

E only

C and E

D only

Save

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Question 44 (1 point)

Using the labeled latitudes A-E, where is air sinking on a global atmospheric scale?

D only

C only

A, C, and E

A only

C and E

Save

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Question 45 (1 point)

Using the labeled latitudes A-E, where would you likely find lower than average sea surface salinity?

A only

B only

B and D

C and E

D only

Save

The water mass having both high salinity and warm temperature and found at about 1,000 meters water depth in the central north Atlantic has been formed

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Question 46 (1 point)

Question 47 (1 point)

in equatorial regions

in the Red Sea

in the Mediterranean Sea

near Greenland

in the Caribbean Sea

Save

The water layer region between 100-1,000 meters where temperature changes rapidly with depth is known as a(n)

halocline

thermocline

pycnocline

thermohaline

isopycnal

Save

The temperature plot labeled “A” is characteristic of ocean temperature in what area?

r

temperate latitudes

the south pole

tropical latitudes

high latitudes

Save

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Question 48 (1 point)

Question 49 (1 point)

Question 50 (1 point)

Question 51 (1 point)

Which term does not belong when describing major upweling off of the western coast of South America?

convection

surface divergence

La Nina

wind

continuity

Save

On this representation of the waters adjacent to the east coast of the United States, the letter “C” indicates

warm core ring(s)

cold core ring(s)

color for cold water

the Gulf Stream

color for warm water

Save

Ekman transport associated with the doldrums creates the

intermediate water

subtropical divergence

Sargasso convergence

tropical divergence

dispersion

Save

Which of the following describes the pattern of the North Atlantic gyre.

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Question 52 (1 point)

Question 53 (1 point)

Question 54 (1 point)

Question 55 (1 point)

it circulates counterclockwise

at latitude 10-15 degrees it is driven westward by the northeast trade winds

it is centered over the equator

at latitude 10-15 degrees it is driven westward by the prevailing westerlies

it stops circulating at night

Save

Circulation of both the atmosphere and the oceans is driven by what type of currents?

parallel

surface

convection

downwelled

divergent

Save

The energy for driving ocean surface currents is ultimately derived from

plate tectonics

gravity

the sun

radioactive decay

density

Save

Large scale ocean surface currents

are put into motion by the rotation of the earth

are deflected by the same coriolis effect as the atmosphere

change rapidly with daily weather changes

move at the same velocity as the winds that drive them

do not exist

Save

The only ocean surface current to completely encircle the globe is the

West Wind Drift

Gulf Stream

Canary Current

Equatorial Countercurrent

North Atlantic Drift

Save

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Question 56 (1 point)

Question 57 (1 point)

Question 58 (1 point)

Question 59 (1 point)

Question 60 (1 point)

Another name for wind-driven circulation is ___________

density-driven circulation

gyres

Coriolis effect

friction-driven circulation

thermohaline circulation

Save

When waves arrive at monitoring stations set up long distances from a storm center, which waves arrive first?

long wavelength waves

short wavelength waves

steeper waves

internal waves

capillary waves

Save

How does wave group speed compare to celerity?

group speed is twice that of celerity

they are not related

group speed is one-half of celerity

celerity is one-half of group speed

they are equal

Save

When a wave trough is passing by a given point, water particles are moving

forward

backward

up

down

sideways

Save

Which type of breaking waves are the best to surf on?

pushing breakers

surging breakers

spilling breakers

collapsing breakers

plunging breakers

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Question 61 (1 point)

Question 62 (1 point)

Question 63 (1 point)

Question 64 (1 point)

Question 65 (1 point)

Save

The photo shows channels running from shore seaward cutting across the surf zone. These are probably formed by

shallow water waves

reflected waves

refracted waves

rip currents

internal waves

Save

What, ultimatley, is the source of all wind waves on earth?

wind

currents

gravity

the sun

the moon

Save

The orbital motion of a shallow water wave extends to a water depth equal to

twice the wavelength

one-half the vavelength

one-half the wave height

the water depth

the wave’s height

Save

At the coast, wave refraction results in wave energy being concentrated and dispersed _.

in deep water; behind breakwaters

on headlands; in bays

in shallow water; in deep water

in bays; on headlands

in deep water; in shallow water

Save

Energy moving through water along a pycnocline would best be described as

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Question 66 (1 point)

Question 67 (1 point)

a boundary wave

a counter current

a convection current

an internal wave

a rip current

Save

The arrows labeled “A” point to _ of a standing wave.

the length

the troughs

the nodes

the crests

the antinodes

Save

Which of the following is not a generating force of tsunamis?

submarine landslide

tides

submarine volcano

wind

earthquake

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Question 68 (1 point)

Question 69 (1 point)

Question 70 (1 point)

Save

The dashed lines labeled “B” on the accompanying figure are known as

precession lines

cotidal lines

declination lines

corange lines

Coriolis lines

Save

Diurnal tides complete how many tidal cycle(s) per day?

one

two

three

one, but only at low latitudes

none, it takes a month to complete a tidal cycle

Save

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Question 71 (1 point)

The island at position “C” is experiencing what kind of tide?

higher low tide

lower low tide

higher high tide

lower high tide

low tide, but you can’t tell if it’s lower or higher

Save

The tidal bulge at “A” is created by

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Question 72 (1 point)

Question 73 (1 point)

Question 74 (1 point)

both centrifugal force and gravitational attraction

gravitational attraction

centrifugal force

Earth’s rotation

the sun

Save

If the high tide of a diurnal tide occurs at 10:00 AM one day, approximately when will the next high tide occur?

10:25 PM the same day

10:50 AM the next day

10:00 AM the next day

10:00 PM the same day

10:25 AM the next day

Save

If a high tide of a semidiurnal tide occurs at 10:00 AM, approximately when will the next high tide occur?

10:25 PM the same day

10:50 AM the next day

10:00 AM the next day

10:00 PM the same day

10:25 AM the next day

Save

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Question 75 (1 point)

Question 76 (1 point)

The accompanying diagram shows shoreline features characteristic of erosional coasts. Letter “C” indicates what feature?

headland

sandy beaches

sea cave

blowhole

sea stack

sea arch

marine terrace

wave-cut platform

Save

The zone from outer limit of wave action to landward limit of wave influence is _?

the beach shore coastal zone tide area coastal region
The post what color would the the ocean appear when viewed from above?

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